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Accounting for Unknown Interactions of Co-existing Factors that Confounded Causality Conclusions in Two Studies

Dietary interventions as now conducted are incapable of rendering valid causal conclusions about specific substances, compounds, or chemicals. This is because the near-infinite variations in foods produce unknown and unknowable co-contamination errors that are further confounded by preparation inconsistencies. This can be illustrated by comparing two recent dietary intervention studies — one studying Plastic-Derived Chemicals […]

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Recent Dietary Interventions for BPA/Phthalates

Rudel, R.A., Gray, J.M., Engel, C.L., Rawsthorne, T.W., Dodson, R.E., Ackerman, J.M., Rizzo, J., Nudelman, J.L., and Brody, J.G. 2011. Food packaging and Bisphenol A and Bis(2-Ethyhexyl) Phthalate exposure: Findings from a dietary intervention. Environmental Health Perspectives 119(7): 914-920.  Sathyanarayana, S., Alcedo, G., Saelens, B.E., Zhou, C., Dills, R.L., Yu, J., and Lanphear, B. 2013. […]

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Black Box Meals: Lessons from Five Dietary Intervention Studies

Black Box: “A complex system or device whose internal workings are hidden or not readily understood.” (From Oxford.)   Dietary intervention black boxes are those in which catering companies, institutional food preparers or even test subjects create meals whose sourcing, preparation, cooking, and serving details are mostly unknown and unguided by investigators. At best, food […]

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Dosing of a Single Compound to Establish Causality in Dietary Interventions & Enable Clinically Valid Health Decisions

“Inconsistent and contradictory results from nutrition studies conducted by different investigators continue to emerge, in part because of the inherent variability of natural products, as well as the unknown and therefore uncontrolled variables in study populations and experimental designs.” — The Challenge of Reproducibility and Accuracy in Nutrition Research: Resources and Pitfalls Dietary studies are […]

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The NOVA Classification

The NOVA classification, originally proposed in 2010, has been widely adopted to define a range of food preparation categories: Unprocessed or minimally processed foods Processed culinary ingredients Processed foods Ultra-processed foods From: The UN Decade of Nutrition, the NOVA food classification and the trouble with ultra-processing:  The NOVA classification, outlined above, groups foods according to […]

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Micro- and Nanoplastics: Health Implications

Microplastics are generally those fragments that are less than five millimeters in size. However, a single microplastic fragment rarely stays the same size.   Whether found on dry land, in steams, and oceans — or in your mouth as you chew, swallow, and digest — natural and biological forces relentlessly reduce microplastics in size. Eventually, […]

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How Food Processing Adds Plastic-Derived Chemical Contamination

According to How does the food chain get contaminated with plastic-derived chemicals?, plastic-derived chemical (PDC) contamination of basic foods, even those that do not undergo extensive processing, comes from : Contact with micro- and nanoplastics in the environment and leaching from contaminated soil and water during planting, irrigation, and growth. Exposure to plastics during harvest […]

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